现在招聘! 探索SMS设备的职业生涯. 观点的机会

可替代燃料

Nowhere, perhaps, is the decarbonization journey undergoing more of a seismic shift than in the development and refinement of alternative fuel sources. 传统上,除了柴油,用户几乎没有其他选择, 生物柴油和天然气, 在大幅扩大这些选择方面,几个方面正在取得进展. 

多年来, SMS设备一直在密切监测替代燃料领域的发展, 认识到它肯定会成为“新常态”. 为此目的, 我们召集了一个高技能的, well-informed team to help our customers understand what will — and won’t — meet their needs today and moving forward. 许多创新的解决方案需要时间来成熟, 发展配套的基础设施, 获得广泛认可, etc. 当前的, 随时可用的选项, however, can prove an ideal starting point for any forward-thinking company seeking to address the issue of decarbonization. 

人迹罕至的路很快就会变得拥挤不堪. 让SMS设备帮助您考虑替代方案.

既定的替代方案
生物柴油
生物柴油, 由大豆制成, canola, 植物油或动物脂肪, 最常见和最知名的替代柴油燃料是什么. 当用作柴油的替代品时, 生物柴油可以提供可观的温室气体(GHG)排放效益并减少发动机部件磨损.

下一代替代方案
可再生柴油
可再生柴油, 或HVO(加氢处理植物油), 与传统生物柴油相比有显著的改进. 市场上“最环保”的柴油, 它是无味和无色,并提供令人印象深刻的性能优势. 由植物油加氢加工而成, 脂肪和废食用油, 还有其他生物质原料,比如垃圾, 木材和农业废弃物, 可再生柴油必须满足与石油基柴油相同的ASTM标准. 它可以作为柴油的替代品(高达100%), with no blend-wall limitations) with no modifications to the vehicle fuel system or fuel station equipment. 它在长期储存中也很稳定,不会堵塞燃料过滤器. 其他好处包括:提高车辆性能, 温室气体排放量减少50%, 改善里程, 减少维护需求和优越的性能,在寒冷天气. 

未来的燃料
地球上最丰富的资源之一, 氢燃烧时零碳排放, 并且可以由绿色能源生产. 尽管氢作为运输燃料的市场还处于起步阶段, 政府和工业界都在努力实现清洁能源, 经济, 以及安全的氢气生产和分配. 氢作为一种燃料的前景是光明的, both because internal combustion engines can be modified to run on hydrogen and because the main waste product of a hydrogen-fueled engine is water vapor, 不是二氧化碳. Also, 不像汽油, 氢在“低燃料”条件下燃烧良好,” those in which there is far more oxygen than fuel which improves fuel efficiency while greatly reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. 

替代燃料常见问题

Alternative or clean fuels are fuels that produce much lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional petroleum-based fuels based on life-cycle analysis. 生命周期分析用于评估产品生命周期各个阶段的环境影响, 包括原料提取, 处理, 制造业, 分布, use, 处理或回收. 当比较燃料时, 生命周期分析可能侧重于燃料生命周期的特定部分, 比如从提取到使用, 也被称为从油井到车轮, 确定与每种燃料相关的优点或问题.

在加拿大这里, 其动机是遵守加拿大净零排放责任法案, which enshrines in legislation the Government of Canada’s commitment to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and provides a framework of accountability and transparency to deliver on it. Its main points include establishing a legally binding process to set five-year national emissions-reduction targets as well as develop credible, 以科学为基础的减排计划实现每一个目标. 除了, it establishes the 2030 greenhouse gas emissions target as Canada’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement emissions reductions of 40-45 percent below 2005 levels by 2030. 该法案还要求设定2035年的国家减排目标, 2040, 和2045年, 提前十年. 每个目标都需要可信的、基于科学的减排计划来实现. 

有许多不同的替代燃料,包括:
  • 纤维素乙醇
  • 生物柴油
  • 可再生柴油
  • 可持续航空燃料
  • 可再生天然气
  • 可再生丙烷

生物柴油 is a diesel fuel substitute used in diesel engines made from renewable materials such as: vegetable oil, 废食用油, 动物脂肪, 鱼油, 海藻油, 并且可能来自纤维素原料.

Point of Interest: 生物柴油 is already finding its place as a blend used in conventional diesel-powered vehicles and can typically be blended in concentrations up to 20%. The US EPA suggests that 生物柴油 emits up to 11% lower carbon monoxide levels and as much as 10% lower particulate matter than conventional petroleum-based diesel.

可再生柴油, 也被称为HVO(加氢处理植物油), 或HDRD(氢化衍生可再生柴油),并通过EN15940认证. Handling of renewable diesel is the same as conventional diesel and because renewable diesel is a drop-in fuel, 符合ASTM D975石油柴油规范, 并且可以无缝地混合, 运输, 甚至与石油柴油共同加工.

重点:通常由植物油制成, 废食用油, 动物脂肪, 鱼油, 不可食用的玉米油, 海藻油, it improves greenhouse gas emissions by up to 75 percent while providing an energy density approximately 96% that of standard diesel. 

不,他们不是. 可再生柴油, 以前被称为绿色柴油, 一种碳氢化合物是最常通过加氢处理产生,还是也通过气化产生, 热解, 以及其他生化和热化学技术. 符合ASTM D975石油柴油规范. 如上所述,生物柴油是一种由可再生材料制成的柴油替代品. 它符合ASTM D6751,并被批准与石油柴油混合.

Yes. 而生物柴油, 如果混合超过5%, 可能需要修改车辆燃油系统和加油站设备, 可再生柴油不需要. 除了, renewable diesel can be either fully substituted for diesel or blended in any amount (生物柴油  is not recommended for blending above 5%); and it is stable in long-term storage, will not absorb significant amounts of moisture and does not cause blocks in fuel filters — all shortcomings of 生物柴油.

虽然对实现零净目标没有好处, 生物柴油, which emits up to 11% lower carbon monoxide and 10% lower particulate matter than conventional diesel, 仍然是减少碳足迹的伟大的第一步吗. 生物柴油 is also already widely available and is currently being blended into conventional diesel in most regions. 因为它也提供了比超低硫柴油更好的润滑性能, it can increase engine life and can reduce carcinogen levels during combustion by as much as 85% versus petroleum-based diesel.

氢(H2)是一种可由各种国内资源生产的替代燃料. 尽管氢作为运输燃料的市场还处于起步阶段, 政府和工业界都在努力实现清洁能源, 经济, 以及安全的氢气生产和分配 for widespread use in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). 

Point of Interest: Light-duty FCEVs are already available in limited quantities to the consumer market in localized regions both here and abroad. 公共汽车市场也在发展, 物料搬运设备(如叉车), 地面支援设备, 中型和重型卡车, 和海上船只. 

It is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit. 它可以从草、木材、藻类或其他植物中产生. 纤维素乙醇 contains more net energy and emits significantly fewer greenhouse gases than ethanol made from corn. 乙醇是一种与汽油混合的燃料. 这类燃料的一个流行用例是在高性能车辆上.

Point of Interest: 纤维素乙醇 contains more net energy and emits significantly fewer greenhouse gases than ethanol made from corn. And, 一旦它的基础设施到位, 纤维素乙醇将适用于任何能够运行E85的灵活燃料汽车.

SAF is a fuel derived from renewable resources that enables a reduction in net life cycle carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional fuels. 当SAF与常规喷气燃料混合时, 符合ASTM D1655, 这使得它可以在现有的飞机和基础设施中使用. 

Point of interest: A range of different biomasses and feedstock types can be used to make the fuel and, 因为一些商业航空公司已经成功地使用了它, 未来一定程度的使用/需求得到了保证.

RNG is a pipeline-quality gas that is fully interchangeable with conventional natural gas and thus can be used in natural gas vehicles. RNG is essentially biogas (the gaseous product of the decomposition of organic matter) that has been processed to purity standards. 比如传统天然气, RNG can be used as a transportation fuel in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). 

Point of interest: 除了 to the obvious benefit of reducing methane (greenhouse gas) emissions, RNG的使用可以在燃料安全方面提供好处, 经济收入或储蓄, 以及在空气被捕获的地方改善空气质量. i.燃烧它并不能改善空气质量,从生物质中捕获气体却可以.

可再生丙烷是一种可以由多种原料制成的燃料, 包括大豆油, 用过的食用油和动物油脂. The most common form of renewable propane today is a byproduct from the same process that creates renewable diesel from soybean oil. 

Point of Interest: The sources that go into producing renewable propane are not only materials most consider to be waste but can include plant matter such as corn. By 2050, 可再生丙烷可以满足全球一半的丙烷需求, 根据世界液化石油气协会的数据.

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